Nitrate

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What is Nitrate?

Nitrate (NO3) is a nitrogen by-product of the nitrifying bacteria (Nitrospira) in a filter or substrate consuming Nitrite. It was previously thought species of Nitrobacter did this. but since 1998 it's considered to be species of Nitrospira.

The level of Nitrate in water that may damages aquatic animals varies considerably in each species and at their stage of growth. With mortality of eggs and very young fry being sensitive to low levels (~20 mg/l) of nitrate.[1] Also nitrate toxicity is made further complex as fish can become accustomed to a slowly growing level of nitrate over time and remain seemingly visually unharmed.

Scientific studies into nitrate toxicity have been primary been performed on commercial fish consumed by the public. For example fish like Salmon, trout and some large catfish. With the majority of the fish used in the ornamental pet trade remaining untested and therefore an unknown factor.

Studies of adult fish like Salmon show they can tolerate levels of 5,000 mg/l [1][2]


Recommend level

The safe level of nitrate varies considerably between species and its age. The hobby has settled for an average maximum level of 50 mg/l in a typical community tropical tank. But this level may need to be adjusted downwards if you wish to own known nitrate sensitive fish like Stingrays or Discus. Marine fish owners often set a safe level of below 20 mg/l.

Symptoms of Nitrate poison

It inhibits growth, damages internal organs and impairs the immune system in young fish. In older fish high levels cause stress leading to a depressed immune system, behavioural changes and even blindness and death.

Lethal dosage


The average fish can withstand quite high dosages of nitrates (100-500mg/l) as long as the build up of the chemical is slow and over many days in the tank. However it's quite common for less experience aquarists to go and introduce a new fish to their seemingly healthy tank of fish only for the new fish to die overnight due to nitrate poisoning if the tank water is heavy with nitrate. And as stated previously each species tolerance is different (and poorly researched in the cases of ornamental aquatic pets) which is why the hobby often recommends an average safe level of 50mg/l.

Testing for Nitrates

There are many test kits available from pet shops for testing the level of nitrate in water. Some are simple strips of cards which you dip into water. Other more accurate ones use drops of chemicals you mix with a sample of water.


Removing Nitrate

If levels are not going down then you may need to do several things:

Adding Nitrates

In a well planted tank with a good CO2 supply, the plants will want to consume more nitrate than there is in the water. In these situations it is often the case that aquatics manually add nitrate via chemical powders.

See PMDD and EI for examples of their use.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Tolerance of developing salmonid eggs and fry to nitrate exposure
  2. Acute and chronic toxicity of nitrate to early life stages of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)
  3. Nitrate Toxicity: A Potential Problem of Recirculating Systems (Archived web link Nov. 2004)
  4. Patent US6025152
  5. Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus megatarium, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pasteurii, Bacillus cirroflagellosus, Bacillus pumilus. As listed in US Patent 6025152.
  6. Patent US6025152 - Denitrifying bacterial preparation and method

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