Difference between revisions of "Betta pugnax"

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== Sexing ==
+
== Sexing/Reproduction ==
:Males have a broader head then females and much longer pelvic fins and will have spikes on the anal and caudal fins. Males will also develop "green cheek flashes".
+
:Males have a broader head and much longer pelvic fins than the females; they also develop pointed ends on their anal and caudal fins, as well as distinctive patches of green iridescence on their cheeks. This species is one of the best studied mouthbrooding bettas; instead of building a bubblenest like the more familiar ''Betta splendens'', the male ''Betta pugnax'' carries the eggs and fry in his mouth for 9-16 days before releasing a number of relatively large fry. Males are relatively consistent holders compared to many other wild bettas, and if a pair is kept together and fed well they will often breed every few weeks; males may accidentally swallow broods if startled, and should be disturbed as little as possible while holding. The fry can take baby brine shrimp and microworms right away; they often manage to grow up alongside the parents, but maximum production is best achieved by moving both parents after the fry have been released.
 
 
 
        
 
        
 
== Tank compatibility ==
 
== Tank compatibility ==
:As with just about any other kind of fish, the larger the tank, the better. We would recommend no smaller than a {{gal|10|15}} tank for a pair of these fish. For a small group, you shouldn't really use anything smaller than a {{gal|20}} long.
+
:Like many wild bettas, this species is fairly peaceful with fish that do not fit in their mouths; any tank mates should be fairly calm species that will not nip the long fins the males can develop. If kept in a 30 inch or longer tank, these bettas can be kept in small groups; otherwise they work best in pairs, and spawning will inevitably be more successful in pairs due to the lack of unrelated adults that may predate the fry.
 
 
:First of all the tank should be tightly covered. All Bettas are excellent jumpers! They can find the smallest opening and take advantage of it.
 
 
 
 
        
 
        
 
== Diet ==
 
== Diet ==
:Pugnax are top feeders, which is why they have upturned mouths. There diet can consist of floating pellets to flakes, but as with other Bettas they enjoy live foods such as [[bloodworm]]s and [[daphnia]] as well. In addition, they will eat any live food that fits in their mouth! They relish worms of all kinds: whiteworms, blackworms, and red worms of appropriate size. The African Dwarf Red Worms that many Killie hobbyists cultivate are just about bite size for most of the larger mouthbrooders. They can be chopped up and fed as chunks to smaller mouthbrooders. Larger Mouthbrooders will also eat smaller fish.
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:A carnivore that will eat most foods offered in captivity, often including dry foods. As with all bettas, they benefit from the regular addition of live and frozen foods to their diet.
 
 
 
        
 
        
 
== Feeding regime ==
 
== Feeding regime ==
:Mouthbrooding Bettas (such as ''Betta pugnax'') are mostly "lay-in-wait" type predators. They spend much of their time hiding, or just hanging around large objects in the streams, waiting for a meal to float by. When something tempting floats by, or hits the surface, they go after it, swallow it rapidly, then go back to lurking – waiting for their next meal. Even newly caught wild fish will quickly go after quality flake foods, frozen foods, and pellets.
+
:The usual once or twice a day feeding regime works well with this species; as with all bettas, they are vulnerable to obesity and should usually be fasted once a week for the sake of their health.
  
     
 
 
== Environment specifics ==
 
== Environment specifics ==
:Not critical, Pugnax is very tolerant of water chemistry as long as the water is well filtered and clean.  Should be kept in mid {{f|70}} however will tolerate water from mid 60s to 80s.
+
:Betta pugnax comes from a wide range of clear and black water habitats in the wild; thus, this is not a picky species and can be kept under most water conditions that are not extremely hard and alkaline. Decor can range from leaves to driftwood to plants, as well as anything else that is not going to increase the water's hardness or PH to uncomfortable levels. Like all wild bettas, they are powerful jumpers and need a secure lid with no gaps.
 
 
 
        
 
        
== Behaviour ==
+
== Notes ==
:''Betta pugnax'' are mouthbrooders, that's why it is important to know what mouthbrooding is and why many wild Bettas use it as a breeding strategy. Most people, when they think of Anabantoids in general, and Bettas in particular, think of bubble nests. In fact, the Anabantoids are often all called Bubblenesters! Actually, many species are not bubble-nest builders! The majority of known Betta species are mouthbrooders, and several more are "switch hitters", using either a small bubble nest or mouthbrooding, whichever the situation warrants!
+
:This betta has been sporadically kept in captivity for over a century and is widely regarded as one of the best wild bettas for a new hobbyist, being adaptable, easy to breed, and willing to take prepared foods. In spite of this, the species is rarely available captive bred.
 
 
:It is widely believed that in Anabantoids, mouthbrooding behaviour evolved from bubble-nest building. A bubble-nest works fine in stagnant water, and is even advantageous – keeping the eggs and developing fry together, safe, and moist while keeping them close to the oxygen-rich atmosphere. When a fish moves into a stream, though, a bubble-nest is very difficult to keep together. Since the male is already manipulating the eggs with his mouth when building a bubble-nest, it is just a short evolutionary hop to keeping the eggs in his mouth all of the time.
 
 
 
:In addition, there are other advantages to mouthbrooding. A male bubblenester is tied to the nest and can’t move far from it or he risks loosing the eggs or fry. A male mouthbrooder can move as he needs to in order to keep himself and his brood safe. While he does expend more energy with this reproductive strategy, he also has a greater chance of all or most of his progeny reaching a stage where they can fend for themselves. The awkward and defenceless stage where they would be unable to swim while carrying their yolk sac is avoided. Further, the male is able to keep the eggs well oxygenated by moving a current of water over them with every breath. All around, it is a more efficient reproductive strategy.
 
 
 
     
 
== Identification ==
 
:A slender elongate Betta fish with a typical upturned mouth. The scales are iridescent and range from green to blue in colour, can appear grey in bad lighting. They can vary in colouration depending on their origin, there are several regional variations. The caudal fin is rounded in the female, but the male's is pointed.
 
 
 
 
        
 
        
 
{{Categories
 
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Latest revision as of 18:07, 16 November 2019

Penang Betta

Betta pugnax 02.jpg
Penang Betta

Betta pugnax

57 Litres (15 US G.)

10-12 cm (3.9-4.7")

sg

Freshwater

pH

5.0 - 7.5

20 -28 °C (68-82.4°F)

3-10 °d

1:1 M:F

Carnivore
Pellet Foods
Flake Foods
Live Foods

3-5 years

Family

Osphronemidae



Additional names

Penang Betta, Breder's Betta, King Betta, Forest Betta

Additional scientific names

Betta brederi


Sexing/Reproduction[edit | edit source]

Males have a broader head and much longer pelvic fins than the females; they also develop pointed ends on their anal and caudal fins, as well as distinctive patches of green iridescence on their cheeks. This species is one of the best studied mouthbrooding bettas; instead of building a bubblenest like the more familiar Betta splendens, the male Betta pugnax carries the eggs and fry in his mouth for 9-16 days before releasing a number of relatively large fry. Males are relatively consistent holders compared to many other wild bettas, and if a pair is kept together and fed well they will often breed every few weeks; males may accidentally swallow broods if startled, and should be disturbed as little as possible while holding. The fry can take baby brine shrimp and microworms right away; they often manage to grow up alongside the parents, but maximum production is best achieved by moving both parents after the fry have been released.

Tank compatibility[edit | edit source]

Like many wild bettas, this species is fairly peaceful with fish that do not fit in their mouths; any tank mates should be fairly calm species that will not nip the long fins the males can develop. If kept in a 30 inch or longer tank, these bettas can be kept in small groups; otherwise they work best in pairs, and spawning will inevitably be more successful in pairs due to the lack of unrelated adults that may predate the fry.

Diet[edit | edit source]

A carnivore that will eat most foods offered in captivity, often including dry foods. As with all bettas, they benefit from the regular addition of live and frozen foods to their diet.

Feeding regime[edit | edit source]

The usual once or twice a day feeding regime works well with this species; as with all bettas, they are vulnerable to obesity and should usually be fasted once a week for the sake of their health.

Environment specifics[edit | edit source]

Betta pugnax comes from a wide range of clear and black water habitats in the wild; thus, this is not a picky species and can be kept under most water conditions that are not extremely hard and alkaline. Decor can range from leaves to driftwood to plants, as well as anything else that is not going to increase the water's hardness or PH to uncomfortable levels. Like all wild bettas, they are powerful jumpers and need a secure lid with no gaps.

Notes[edit | edit source]

This betta has been sporadically kept in captivity for over a century and is widely regarded as one of the best wild bettas for a new hobbyist, being adaptable, easy to breed, and willing to take prepared foods. In spite of this, the species is rarely available captive bred.

Pictures[edit | edit source]

Videos[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]