Difference between revisions of "Poecilia reticulata"

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(Links: Removed broken link *[http://www.bettatrading.com.au/Guppy-Fact-Sheet.php Guppy Fact Sheet])
 
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|family=Poeciliidae
 
|family=Poeciliidae
 
|captive_bred=Yes
 
|captive_bred=Yes
|difficulty=VE
+
|difficulty=easy
 
|min_size=2
 
|min_size=2
 
|max_size=2.5
 
|max_size=2.5
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|max_life_span=4
 
|max_life_span=4
 
|min_sg=1
 
|min_sg=1
|max_sg=1.005
+
|max_sg=1.026
 
|min_tank_size=10
 
|min_tank_size=10
 
|min_tank_size_unit=G
 
|min_tank_size_unit=G
|min_ph=5.5
+
|min_ph=7.0
 
|max_ph=8.0
 
|max_ph=8.0
|min_temperature=64
+
|min_temperature=68
 
|max_temperature=82
 
|max_temperature=82
 
|temperature_units=F
 
|temperature_units=F
|min_water_hardness=6
+
|min_water_hardness=5
|max_water_hardness=15
+
|max_water_hardness=20
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
== Origin ==
 
== Origin ==
:Native to Venezuela, Barbados, Trinidad, northern Brazil and the Guyanas but introduced into many other countries.
+
:Native to Venezuela, Barbados, Trinidad, northern Brazil and the Guyanas but introduced into many other countries. While primarily a freshwater fish, it will survive in full strength seawater if acclimated carefully.
 
 
  
 
== Sexing ==
 
== Sexing ==
:Male guppies have longer, wider flowing tails and dorsal fins. The bodies of males are typically more colourful than their female counterparts. Females are considerably larger than males, have a white or clear body and may display a colourful tail, although shorter and not as flowing.
+
:Male guppies are much more colorful than females; in domesticated strains, they also have much longer fins than females. Aside from coloration, sex can also be determined by the presence of the [[gonopodium]] organ, a modified anal fin used to inseminate the female during mating. Mature females also have a dark [[gravid spot]] near their vent; if she is pregnant, the gravid spot will be a large, dark brown, or more commonly, black spot. If she is not pregnant, the gravid spot will be a smaller dot ranging in color from brown to yellow-orangish, depending on the individual fish. In some specimens, as pregnancy advances to the last few days before birth, the eyes of the fry may be visible in place of the gravid spot.
 
 
:Aside from colouration, sex can also be determined by the presence of the [[gonopodium]] organ. Mature females also have a dark [[gravid spot]] near their vent. If she is pregnant, the gravid spot will be a large, dark brown, or more commonly, black spot. If she is not pregnant however, the gravid spot will be a small dot ranging in colour from brown to yellow-orangish, depending on the individual fish. In some specimens, as pregnancy advances to the last few days before birth, you will be able to see the eyes of the unborn fry in place of the gravid spot.
 
  
 
== Breeding ==
 
== Breeding ==
:To have a group of guppies of male and females that breed, a minimum of a {{gal|15}} aquarium is required. If you are not separating fry from the adults, the fry will need to be moved to a breeding device, such as a net breeder, it's a good idea to add a portion of [[Java Moss]] to the aquarium, as it will provide shelter and food for small fry.
+
:Guppies are notoriously easy to breed and will inevitably reproduce if both sexes are present (hence the JAW - 'just add water' - name); even an all-female group can still become a breeding colony if the females had previously been exposed to males, as female guppies can store sperm from previous matings and use it to fertilize several subsequent broods.The gestation period typically lasts 3-4 weeks before relatively large fry are produced; the parents may eat the fry, and thus they are best moved to another tank of their own to be raised. If the fry are not going to be separated from the adults, it's a good idea to add large quantities of floating plants to the aquarium, as they will provide shelter and food for small fry (which hide near the surface when young). Pregnant females should '''not''' be put into a net breeder or trap shortly prior to giving birth, as this can stress them to the point that they abort the fry. Fry can be fed powdered fry food, baby brine shrimp, or microworms immediately and can reach maturity within two months under ideal conditions.
 
 
:Pregnant females should '''not''' be put into a net breeder or trap prior to giving birth as this will cause them undue stress and possibly cause them to abort the fry.
 
 
 
:The ease in which this species breeds and the wide variety of colour and fin shapes has caused the development of a show culture in the aquarium hobby. Many breeders have developed particular types of guppies that they sell at high prices and for prizes.
 
 
 
:Generally guppies are considered very easy to breed. If the breeder is not concerned about genetic heritage or the breeding for color or a specific attribute, simply putting male and female guppies in the same tank will yield offspring within a month. Females have a gestation period of around 21-28 days.  The variations in gestation period are influenced by the number of hours of daylight each day, by temperature and by genetics.
 
 
 
  
 
== Tank compatibility ==
 
== Tank compatibility ==
:Guppies cohabit with many different kinds of fish because of their docile nature. Sometimes, although rarely, males will attack other fish of the same body shape and tail appearance. This happens mainly to other livebearers such as [[Swordtail]]s and other male Guppies, and is harmless showing-off for the females. Usually no real harm is done.
+
:Guppies are very docile fish that can be mixed with a variety of hard water tolerant species. Fin nippers should be avoided with the fancy varieties, and large fish should likewise be avoided unless the guppies are intended to serve as a live food source; this is particularly important for the smaller wild type guppies. Male bettas regularly confuse fancy guppies for rival males and should not be mixed with them. Male guppies are constantly obsessed with reproduction, and females in the tank should outnumber males three to one or more to prevent them from being unduly harassed; female non-guppy livebearers may be similarly harassed.
 
 
:Some good tank mates are, but are not limited to:
 
:*[[:Category:Corydoras|Corydoras catfish]]
 
:*[[Otocinclus]] catfish
 
:*[[Dwarf Gourami]] (Dwarf Gouramis will eat fry that it can see and catch, but harmless to adults.)
 
:*[[:Category:Snails (Freshwater)|Snails]]
 
:These are a very tiny handful of tank-mates, and there are a large amount of others.
 
 
 
:Do not keep these fish with [[Tiger Barb]]s or other known fin-nippers such as [[Serpae Tetra]]s, as Guppies can sometimes be nipped especially the males with elongated finnage. Large predatory fish should also be avoided such as larger [[:Category:Cichlids|Cichlids]] including [[Angelfish]]. Nor should they be kept with ''[[Betta splendens]]'', specifically the male Bettas with male Guppies, as these are territorial fish known for mistaking male Guppies as other Bettas and killing them.
 
 
 
  
 
== Diet ==
 
== Diet ==
:Guppies are omnivores and will eat algae-based flake food, freeze-dried [[bloodworm]]s, [[tubifex]], [[brine shrimp]], and flakes. Also will eat small parts of fresh earthworms and whole parts of bloodworms. They also like to eat some blanched vegetables like courgette, cucumber or lettuce. Algae wafers are also good to provide variety in the diet.
+
:Guppies are omnivores and will eat virtually everything offered, from algae to flakes to small live foods. They will also eat some blanched vegetables like courgette, cucumber or lettuce. Live and frozen foods will encourage better health, color, and vitality as they do most other fishes.
 
 
  
 
== Feeding regime ==
 
== Feeding regime ==
:Feed once or twice a day sparingly.
+
:Guppies typically eat constantly in the wild and benefit from several small feedings throughout the day.
 
 
  
 
== Environment specifics ==
 
== Environment specifics ==
:Good water quality, lightly planted. No rough edges on [[:category:Ornaments|ornaments]] to damage fins. There should be plenty of open swimming space. Due to overbreeding, many Guppies can be quite fragile so water quality should be kept optimum.
+
:Guppies are not overly picky about their tank layout as long as the water is reasonably hard and alkaline, though dense plant growth will improve fry survival rates. The long finned fancy varieties should not be kept with sharp ornaments that may snag on their fins. Many fancy varieties are infamously delicate and require excellent water quality; salt can be used to discourage illness in these fishes but will severely limit what plants can be kept with them.
 
 
 
 
== Behaviour ==
 
:Docile, active and sociable. Breeding requires virtually no effort. Because of this they are sometimes called  J.A.W. fish for Just Add Water fish.
 
  
 +
== Notes ==
 +
:Guppies have been extensively inbred to produce the fancy forms, and thus these fancy forms are often quite delicate; wild type guppies are much better beginner fishes but are harder to find. Feeder guppies (which are usually fancy guppy culls which revert to wild type coloration) are frequently diseased when purchased, but if nursed back to health are also markedly hardier than normal fancy guppies.
  
== Identification ==
 
:Small with brightly-coloured, usually triangular tails, with typically greyish-silver bodies, a pointed nose and upturned mouth. Many different colour and tail type variations have been selectively bred. Wild types have much shorter tails, whereas captive bred fancy males have very elaborate tails and tail types.
 
  
  

Latest revision as of 17:48, 13 November 2019

Male Guppy.jpg
Male Fancy Guppy

Poecilia reticulata

38 Litres (10 US G.)

5.1-6.4cm (2-2.5 ")

sg

1 - 1.026

pH

7.0 - 8.0

20-27.8°C (68 -82 °F)

5-20 °d

1:3 M:F

Omnivore
Pellet Foods
Flake Foods
Live Foods
Other (See article)

2-4 years

Family

Poeciliidae

This animal is available captive bred



Additional names

Guppy, Fancy Guppy, Millions Fish, JAW Fish, Rainbow Fish

Additional scientific names

Acanthophacelus guppii, Acanthophacelus reticulatus, Girardinus guppii, Girardinus reticulatus, Haridichthys reticulatus, Heterandria guppyi, Lebistes poecilioides, Lebistes poeciloides, Lebistes reticulatus, Poecilia reticulate, Poecilia reticulatus, Poecilioides reticulatus


Origin[edit | edit source]

Native to Venezuela, Barbados, Trinidad, northern Brazil and the Guyanas but introduced into many other countries. While primarily a freshwater fish, it will survive in full strength seawater if acclimated carefully.

Sexing[edit | edit source]

Male guppies are much more colorful than females; in domesticated strains, they also have much longer fins than females. Aside from coloration, sex can also be determined by the presence of the gonopodium organ, a modified anal fin used to inseminate the female during mating. Mature females also have a dark gravid spot near their vent; if she is pregnant, the gravid spot will be a large, dark brown, or more commonly, black spot. If she is not pregnant, the gravid spot will be a smaller dot ranging in color from brown to yellow-orangish, depending on the individual fish. In some specimens, as pregnancy advances to the last few days before birth, the eyes of the fry may be visible in place of the gravid spot.

Breeding[edit | edit source]

Guppies are notoriously easy to breed and will inevitably reproduce if both sexes are present (hence the JAW - 'just add water' - name); even an all-female group can still become a breeding colony if the females had previously been exposed to males, as female guppies can store sperm from previous matings and use it to fertilize several subsequent broods.The gestation period typically lasts 3-4 weeks before relatively large fry are produced; the parents may eat the fry, and thus they are best moved to another tank of their own to be raised. If the fry are not going to be separated from the adults, it's a good idea to add large quantities of floating plants to the aquarium, as they will provide shelter and food for small fry (which hide near the surface when young). Pregnant females should not be put into a net breeder or trap shortly prior to giving birth, as this can stress them to the point that they abort the fry. Fry can be fed powdered fry food, baby brine shrimp, or microworms immediately and can reach maturity within two months under ideal conditions.

Tank compatibility[edit | edit source]

Guppies are very docile fish that can be mixed with a variety of hard water tolerant species. Fin nippers should be avoided with the fancy varieties, and large fish should likewise be avoided unless the guppies are intended to serve as a live food source; this is particularly important for the smaller wild type guppies. Male bettas regularly confuse fancy guppies for rival males and should not be mixed with them. Male guppies are constantly obsessed with reproduction, and females in the tank should outnumber males three to one or more to prevent them from being unduly harassed; female non-guppy livebearers may be similarly harassed.

Diet[edit | edit source]

Guppies are omnivores and will eat virtually everything offered, from algae to flakes to small live foods. They will also eat some blanched vegetables like courgette, cucumber or lettuce. Live and frozen foods will encourage better health, color, and vitality as they do most other fishes.

Feeding regime[edit | edit source]

Guppies typically eat constantly in the wild and benefit from several small feedings throughout the day.

Environment specifics[edit | edit source]

Guppies are not overly picky about their tank layout as long as the water is reasonably hard and alkaline, though dense plant growth will improve fry survival rates. The long finned fancy varieties should not be kept with sharp ornaments that may snag on their fins. Many fancy varieties are infamously delicate and require excellent water quality; salt can be used to discourage illness in these fishes but will severely limit what plants can be kept with them.

Notes[edit | edit source]

Guppies have been extensively inbred to produce the fancy forms, and thus these fancy forms are often quite delicate; wild type guppies are much better beginner fishes but are harder to find. Feeder guppies (which are usually fancy guppy culls which revert to wild type coloration) are frequently diseased when purchased, but if nursed back to health are also markedly hardier than normal fancy guppies.

Pictures[edit | edit source]

Videos[edit | edit source]

3rd International Guppy Show 2008: King Tiger Fancy Guppy:

Links[edit | edit source]