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Cypriniformes: Kinethmoid present (a median bone between ascending processes of premaxillae); palatine articulating in a socket of the endoptrygoid; fifth ceratobranchial (the pharyngeal bone) enlarged, with teeth ankylosed to the bone (bound by collagenous fibers to the bone in other ostariophysans with teeth, pharyngeal teeth absent in gyrinocheilids); pharyngeal teeth opposed to enlarged posterior process of basioccipital bone (which encloses the dorsal aorta) rather than to upper pharyngeal elements, the basioccipital process against which the pharyngeal teeth press usually covered by a pad (toug horny pad in cyprinids, soft pad in catostomids); ascending process to premaxillae; upper jaw usually protractile; mouth (jaws and palate) always toothless; adipose fin absent (except in some cobitoids); head almost always scaleless; branchiostegal rays three; spinelike rays in dorsal fin of some species.

Families in this order: