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Lophiiformes: First ray of spinous dorsal, if present, on head and transformed into illicium (line) and esca (bait), a device for attracting prey to mouth; pelvic fins, if present, in front of pectorals, with one spine and four (rarely) or five soft rays; gill opening small tubelike, at or behind (rarely partly in front of) pectoral fin base; five or six branchiostegal rays; no ribs; pectoral radials 2-5, narrow and elongate; first vertebra fused to skull; swim bladder, when present, physoclistous.

Families in this order: