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Osteoglossiformes: Intestine passes posteriorly to left of esophagus and stomach; parasphenoid and tounge bones usually with well-developed teeth and forming a shearing bite (mesopterygoid and usually the ectopterygoid also toothed); premaxilla small and fixed to the skull; no supramaxilla; caudal fin skeleton, except in Hiodon, with large first ural centrum and no urodermals, one or more epurals fused with uroneurals; caudal fin with 16 or fewer branched rays; nasal capsule rigid, no antorbital-supraorbital system for pumping water over olfactory epithelium; epipleural intermuscular bones absent; one or two pyloric caeca, one caecum in Hiodon and Pantodon and two in other osteoglossiforms.

Families in this order: